Quartz Meanings and Uses
Your On-Line Guide to
The Healing Energies, Metaphysical Properties,
Legendary Uses, and Meaning
Introduction to Meaning and Uses of Clear Quartz
Ordinary yet extraordinary, colorful and clear, Quartz crystals are the most common and abundant in the world, comprising the largest and most diverse family in the mineral kingdom. "From ancient times to the present day, quartz crystals have been a source of Light to mankind. Highly valued by spiritual leaders and healers as well as scientists, the unique attributes of quartz have played a key role in mankind' evolutionary development." (Baer, R, "Windows of Light" preface)
Composed of silicon and oxygen (silicon dioxide), Quartz, from the European "quarz", is a key component in a wide array of minerals designated as "silicates." It occurs as prismatic hexagonal crystals in compact masses and druses, as well as in dense fibrous or grainy formations without visible crystals. It is also an important mineral element in common rock such as granite, quartzite and gneiss, and in sedimentary conglomerates like sandstone. [Simmons, 317][www.Quartzpage.de]
For all its variety, when most people speak of "crystals", they are usually referring to Rock Crystal (Clear Quartz), the six-sided prisms of pure light and energy known as the Perfect Jewel. In its sparkling light is contained the entire color spectrum.
In the metaphysical world, Clear Quartz crystals are the supreme gift of Mother Earth. Even the smallest is imbued with the properties of a master healer teacher. Ancients believed these stones to be alive, taking a breath once every hundred years or so, and many cultures thought them to be incarnations of the Divine.
Today's healers agree, believing crystals are living beings, incredibly old and wise, and willing to communicate when an individual is open and ready to receive. Wearing, carrying or meditating with a Clear Quartz crystal opens the mind and heart to higher guidance, allowing the realm of Spirit to be transmitted and translated into the world of physical form.
Resonating at the level of an individual's needs, Clear Quartz also amplifies whatever energy or intent is programmed into it, and continues to broadcast that energy throughout the world and into the etheric realms. This may accelerate the fulfillment of one's prayers, intensify healing or spiritual growth, or simply allow the crystal to hold a pattern of energy long enough and strongly enough for the manifestation of a goal to occur. [Hall II, 22][Eason, 133][Simmons, 318][Ahsian, 319]
"Quartz crystals are the manifestation of the Creator's finest hour of expression. The are windows of light with many facets which show the myriad dimensions of life created from cosmic dust in an ever expanding universe. Divine plan as foreordained that all expanding life revolve around one common denominator, quartz crystal. Through frozen solidified light all creation could be monitored and assisted through the evolutionary process."Beverly Criswell "Quartz Crystals: A Celestial Point of View" ( quoted in "Windows of Light", by Vicki and Randall Baer)
Clear Quartz, pure silicon dioxide, is also called Rock Crystal or Ice Crystal, from the Greek word "krystallos", meaning "ice", because crystal was believed to be water frozen so hard it could never thaw. The prismatic hexagonal crystals have relatively smooth sides and naturally facetted terminations at one or both ends, and may be transparent as glass, milky or striated, often found in clusters and ranging in all sizes. The terminations have different facet shapes depending on the rate at which they were formed, and these shapes are deeply significant. [Simmons, 318][Hall, 225] (See Crystals by Shape)
Throughout history, Clear Quartz has been valued by nearly every civilization as far back as Atlantis and Lemuria, where the sun's power was believed to be harnessed through a crystal as a source of solar energy refraction. They, along with Native American Indians, African tribes, ancient Egyptians, Aztecs, Romans, Scots and countless other cultures used Clear Quartz in diagnostic healing, meditations and spiritual development, as religious objects and in funerary rites, and to dispel evil and magical enchantments. [Mella, 82][Melody, 506][Kunz, 219] (See the Powers, Legends and Lore section at the end of this article.)
Types of Quartz
Quartz encompasses a whole family of stones, found on nearly every continent, in virtually every color conceivable. In addition to the properties of Clear Quartz discussed on this page, the following types of Quartz have their own specific properties, some with links to their own pages.
Macro crystalline varieties form crystals or have a macroscopical crystalline structure. They are usually referred to as "Quartz."
Macro crystalline varieties:
- Rock Crystal is pure, clear Quartz, often with a milky base. Its properties are listed on this page.
- Amethyst is pale purple to deep violet; known as the Bishop's Stone, it represents royalty and spirituality, and is a crystal of creativity.
- Ametrine is a combination of Amethyst and Citrine in the same stone; a "stone of the muses," it connects spirituality, action and overcoming fear.
- Aventurine may be green, blue or reddish-brown with a metallic iridescence; it is a stone of optimism, leadership and prosperity.
- Blue Quartz is clear Quartz with tiny blue inclusions that create a pale to mid-blue color; it brings harmony and order, mental clarity and eases fear.
- Citrine is transparent and pale to golden yellow; it promotes imagination and magnifies the powers of personal will and manifestation.
- Milky or Snow Quartz, also known as Quartzite, is opaque white quartz; it is supportive for lesson learning, realizing limitations and utilizing tact.
- Pink Quartz forms in rare clusters of small, well-formed crystals, pale to deep reddish-pink, translucent to transparent; a “stone of innocence and discovery,” it nurtures self-love and respect of others.
- Rose Quartz is a massive form of Quartz, pale to deep reddish-pink, opaque to translucent; a “stone of beauty and love,” it promotes compassion, appreciation and soothing calm.
- Prase is a leek-green Quartzite (rock rather than a mineral) with actinolite inclusions; an "earth mother" stone, it resolve conflicts and calms nerves.
- Prasiolite is Green Amethyst; leek-green and rare naturally, it is often heat-treated; it provides a bridge between the body, mind and spirit.
- Smoky Quartz is transparent smoky brown to dark gray; it is a premiere grounding stone, dissipating emotional and environmental negativity.
- Tiger's, Hawk's, and Cat's Eye is Quartz layered with chatoyant strips of asbestos and hornblende; Tiger's Eye is golden brown, Hawk's or Falcon's Eye is blue-black, and Cat's Eye is green to greenish-gray. These are stones of action, pride, protection, and reflecting back negative energies.
Cryptocrystalline or microcrystalline varieties have a dense structure and show no visible crystals. They are often grouped together and referred to as "Chalcedony." They are divided into two groups.
- Agate is usually banded in layers and forms in every color; it is a stabilizing and strengthening stone, facilitating acceptance of one's self.
- Carnelian is translucent pale orange to deep red-orange; it is a stone of motivation and endurance, leadership and courage.
- Chalcedony varies in color and pattern, blue is a favorite; the "speaker's stone," it encourages peace-making and carefully choosing one's words.
- Chrysoprase is green, usually opaque, and one of Chalcedony's rarest; it is a stone of the heart and promotes love of truth, hope and fidelity.
- Onyx is opaque layers of black, brown, gray, black/white or red/white, and is often carved in cameos; it provides inner strength, stability and fortitude.
- Sard is brown Chalcedony with a reddish hue; it is a protective stone, dispelling negative influences and providing inner strength.
- Chert is brown, gray or black and resembles Flint, but is more brittle; it aids memory, and is a stone of stability and daily productivity.
- Flint is brown, gray or black, solid or layered, and very hard; a stone of grounding, it promotes understanding, communication and integrity.
- Jasper is opaque, large-grained and found in all colors, most always layered or patterned; a "supreme nurturer," it is revered as sacred, protective, and encourages humility and compassion.
- Heliotrope or Bloodstone is dark green with red spots; a stone of the sun and legendary bearer of Christ's blood, it promotes healing, selflessness and idealism.
This list of main Quartz types is in no way complete. For 500 different shapes, types, and varieties of Quartz Crystals that are constantly being updated on this site, go to Quartz Crystals A to Z.
Quartz Uses and Purposes - Overview
Quartz crystal is valued for its piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties, by which it can transform mechanical pressure or heat into electromagnetic energy, and vice versa. Its ability to focus, amplify, store and transform energy is used throughout the technology world in ultrasound devices, watches, microphones, radio transmitters and receivers, memory chips in computers and other electronic circuitry. [Raphaell, 10-11][Simmons, 317][Melody, 503]
The same properties of energy amplification, programmability and memory also make Clear Quartz the most versatile and multidimensional stone in the mineral kingdom for healing, meditation, expansion of consciousness, communication with guides, past-life recall, attracting love or prosperity, or virtually any purpose. However, with this power comes responsibility. To benefit from Rock Crystal's blessings, one must feel in harmony with it and deserve its gifts. Intent other than for good inevitably brings harm back on oneself. [Simmons, 318][Megemont, 73]
Clear Quartz is excellent for amplifying the energies of other stones or to enhance groups of stones, and is ideal for gridding. It is the perfect base material for wands, staffs, templates, etc., and clear crystal spheres have long been used for crystal gazing. [Simmons, 318]
For ongoing personal energy, carry Clear Quartz as a tumblestone or touch as needed for an instant lift. Add Quartz crystals to bath water, or make an elixir to drink or splash on pulse points by soaking Clear Quartz crystals in water from first light to midday. In the workplace, use as a filter against negativity and to transform critical words. [Eason, 133] Crystals are professional support stones for artists, stylists, doctors and healers, inventors, musicians, and those who work in media. [Mella, 129-132]
Clear Quartz produces a force field of healing negative ions while clearing the surroundings of positive ions, protecting the aura. It dispels static electricity, and cancels out the harmful effects of radiation and radioactivity. [Melody, 505]
Clear Quartz brings strength and clarity to the intellect, aiding concentration and memory retention, and filtering out distractions. Its hypnotic quality is conducive to sleep, helping one to understand the messages and lessons conveyed during the dream state. It is also a respected stone for death, included in many cultures in funeral rites and placed in tombs, urns, and sepulchres. [Megemont, 73][Melody, 505][Kunz, 219]
As an energy saver, Clear Quartz attached to the fuel line in a car is reputed to reduce fuel consumption. [Hall, 225]
Quartz Healing Therapies - Overview
(Please note: Information on this web site is no substitute for consulting a health care professional. All information contained on this web site, including information relating to medical and health conditions, products and treatments, is for informational purposes only. Please see your doctor or health care professional before starting any alternative treatments, diets, supplements or exercise programs.)
Quartz Physical Healing Energy
Clear Quartz is a master healer crystal, and may be used for any condition. It is thought to stimulate the immune and circulatory systems, enhancing energy flow and bringing the body into balance. It has been used to treat migraine headaches, vertigo, in stabilizing dizziness or motion sickness, and is believed to assist with metabolism, exhaustion, and weight loss. [Hall, 225][Melody, 506][Eason, 133][Megemont, 73]
A Crystal elixir taken internally has been used to eliminate toxins from the system and to aid in the treatment of digestive disorders, kidney and bladder infections, and to cure diarrhea. The indirect method of preparation is recommended. [Melody, 506][Megemont, 73]
Clear Quartz soothes painful or injured areas, especially burns, by drawing away pain and eliminating blistering. A topical elixir is also beneficial in treating skin disorders. [Melody, 506][Megemont, 73][Hall, 226]
Quartz Emotional Healing Energy
Clear Quartz acts as a deep soul cleanser, purifying and enhancing the body's internal structure and surrounding subtle bodies to connect the physical dimension with the mind. It focuses on inner negativity and stimulates positive thoughts and feelings in its place. With a better perception of the world, Quartz increases awareness and clarity in thinking, and provides enhanced energy, perseverance and patience, teaching one to live, laugh and love with all of humanity. [Hall, 225][Melody, 504][Gienger, 28]
Because Clear Quartz has the prismatic ability to vibrate its energy at all of the color frequencies, it not only harmonizes all of the chakras, but can teach us how to vibrate our seven chakra centers simultaneously while maintaining perfect alignment with the light. [Raphaell, 51]
Clear Quartz is particularly useful for stimulating the Crown Chakra. The Crown Chakra is located at the top of the head, and is our gateway to the expanded universe beyond our bodies. It controls how we think, and how we respond to the world around us. It is the fountainhead of our beliefs and the source of our spirituality. It connects us to the higher planes of existence and is the source of universal energy and truth. When the Crown is in balance, our energies are in balance. We know our place in the universe and see things as they are. We are unruffled by setbacks, knowing they are an essential part of life.
Quartz Spiritual Energy
Like humans, each Clear Quartz crystal is unique, each with its own personality, lessons, and experiences. The crystals attracted into one's life are stones that will in some way help facilitate personal growth and awareness. They may work subliminally in unawakened minds, but for those spiritually attuned to the universe Quartz crystals are like beacons of light and positive energy to be used in daily thoughts, feelings, words and actions and integrated onto the earth. [Raphaell, 50-51]
As a connection between the physical dimension and the spiritual, Clear Quartz enhances communication with plants, animals, minerals, and in speaking with and receiving information from the Divine and other-worldly masters, teachers and healers. Its natural tendency is for harmony and brings a sense of purpose to those who resonate with it. [Melody, 503]
Quartz is the crystal connection to the infinite octaves of light. Quartz encompasses the Universal Life Force manifested in light. It is the pure White Light of creation manifested in crystalline perfection. It is the higher state of Light, a looking glass of the soul, and the reflection of the Light beings blessings on mankind.
Used in meditation, especially when placed at the Third Eye, Clear Quartz filters out distractions and helps to empty the mind. It allows for a feeling of "oneness" and provides for a deep meditative state. [Melody, 504][Hall, 225]
By visualizing an image of one's intent or desired outcome within the crystal during a meditative session, Clear Quartz provides a powerful psychic amplification. The crystal "remembers" and magnifies the pattern of energy, so using the same crystal in repeated meditations allows for the opportunities and power of the focused intent to manifest into reality. Programming the Quartz in this manner assists one in achieving virtually any goal in inner or outer life. As a note of caution, all such manifestations have their first and strongest effects on the one using the crystal, so negative purposes will inevitably bring harm back on oneself. [Simmons, 318]
Dreaming of crystal signifies freedom from enemies. [Kunz, 358]
The Divinatory meaning of Clear Quartz: New beginnings, fresh energies and the need to move fast to catch up with life. [Eason, 133]
Clear Quartz with its purity of Light is particularly appealing to angels. If your birthday falls in any of the following periods, a Clear Quartz can be a valuable conduit to your Guardian Angel. The table also provides the name of the Guardian Angel of those born in the time period.
|Date||Crystal Color||Name of Guardian Angel|
|August 13-17||Clear||Reiiel (Rejajel)|
There are other Angels that are partial to Clear Quartz.. The table below gives you the information about them.
|Purpose||Crystal Color||Name of Angel|
|Protector and Ruler of the dates May 6-10; Taurus.||Clear||Aladiah|
|Guardian of the Eighteenth Mansion of the Moon; Scorpio.||Clear||Egibiel|
|Protector and Ruler of the dates December 3-7; Sagittarius.||Clear||Hahasiah|
|Master of the 9th Tarot Card “The Hermit”. Associated with Virgo.||Clear||Hamaliel|
|Guardian of the Twentieth Mansion of the Moon; Sagittarius.||Clear||Kyriel|
|Matariel is the Ruler of Earth/Rain.||Clear||Matariel|
|Raziel is known as the Wisdom Angel; Tree of Life, and Heals Spiritual Blocks.||Clear||Raziel|
|Protector and Ruler of the dates August 13-17; Leo.||Clear||Reiiel (Rejajel)|
|Master of the 16th Tarot Card “The Tower”.||Clear||Zamael|
Quartz honors Gaia, the Greek Earth Mother Goddess. Born directly out of Chaos, the primal emptiness, she was the first (or one of the first) beings to appear during the process of creation, and is honored as being the Earth itself.
Clear Quartz honors Kundalini, the Hindu Life Force Goddess; Latona, the Roman Goddess of Light; and Gendenwitha, the Morning Star Goddess of the Iroquois.
A Quartz cluster may also be used to honor Ixcuiname, the Mayan Goddess of the Four Ages of Women.
There are several ways to find an appropriate birthstone. The traditional one is listed first. These are from the popular lists that most people are familiar with. The second way is to find your natural birthstone by the color wheel of life. You can click on the Natural Birthstone graphic below to learn more. Finally many people use the traditional stones of the Zodiac.
In this section you will find information on all three approaches.
Clear Quartz is not a traditional birthstone
Clear Quartz is not a natural birthstone.
Clear Quartz is not associated with any zodiac sign, though it has been known to reduce Capricorn's stubbornness and Leo's need for power, as well as rendering Gemini more tolerant. [Megemont, 74]
Quartz Amulets and Talismans
Clear Quartz is a Seeker Transformer crystal. Seekers contain a crystal energy structure that aligns the natural energy of the crystal to the natural power of the human mind to find the way to new horizons and new capabilities. They're pointers, directors, and compasses; the fresh start crystals. These are talismans of the scientist, the adventurer, the hunter, wanderer and explorer. They're also crystals of the student and the researcher.
Transformer crystals enhance efforts to change our situations, prospects, health, outlook or relationships. By transforming ourselves we transform our lives. We learn to dance, speak a new language, grow stronger, or become a better spouse or child. Seeker crystals with the earth power of the Transformer are excellent talismans to aid our efforts to grow, develop new capabilities and change our lives.
Clear Quartz crystals are perfect "energy dispersers" in any window. As a natural prism, they take light and energy from the sun and disperse it freely within the room. They offer an indoor sun world for warmth, strength and vitality.
Quartz in Ancient Lore and Legend
Since the beginning of time in nearly every culture, Clear Quartz crystals have been held sacred and magical and universally accepted as a source of power. In their creation myths the aboriginal tribes in both Australia and South America describe the image of the "cosmic serpent," the progenitor of all life, being led and guided by a Quartz crystal. [Simmons, 318]
The legendary cities of Atlantis and Lemuria were believed to use Clear Quartz as a source of rejuvenation, in solar energy refraction, and for the complete development of their civilizations of incredible power and splendor. Its misuse is also believed to be the reason for their destructions. Before their fall, their knowledge and secrets of the universe were said to have been programmed into Record Keeper formations of Clear Quartz to be psychically retrieved by chosen souls for future humanity and earth-healing purposes. [Melody, 504, 531][Mella, 82]
From ancient divination to modern crystal-gazing, clear crystal balls have long been used to find lost articles, foretell secrets of the future, forecast impending doom, and was even used at one time as a means to detect minor offences and crimes. "Scrying" has been common since the Greek and Roman periods, and crystal balls brought back by Crusaders in the Middle Ages were said to possess magical powers. The "spirits" yielding the visions were induced by powerful spells, many of which have been preserved, and contain an incongruous mixture of religious and magical formulas. [Fernie, 204-216][Kunz, 176, 186][Simmons, 318]
According to ancient astrologers, the portion of the month when the moon is on its increase is said to be the strongest time for scrying because of the magnetic pull between Rock Crystal and the moon. From traditional beliefs and scientific experimentation over the centuries, a good diet was recommended for crystal-gazers, as well as drinking an infusion of mugwort or chickory to improve iron levels in the blood. Boys and girls before puberty made the best seers, brunettes with dark skin charged the crystal more quickly than blondes; females, especially virgins or widows were far better than males, though once trained males were more powerful and correct. [Kunz, 205, 212][Fernie, 204-208]
A crystal ball known as the Currahmore Crystal in Scotland, because it is kept at the seat of that name belonging to the Marquis of Waterford, has been handed down for centuries, brought from the Holy Land in the 11th century and held in highest esteem for its power to cure cattle of diseases. Slightly larger than an orange with a silver ring around its center, it was placed in a stream and cattle were driven up and down the waters to affect the cure. Its use was not only famous around Currahmore, but requests for its loan were often made from far distant parts of Ireland. The privilege was almost always accorded, never abused, and the crystal was always returned to its rightful owner. [Kunz, 223][Simmons, 318]
In ancient Rome when Rock Crystal was believed to be ice solidified over the course of long years, ladies of luxury carried crystal balls in their hands for cooling purposes during summer weather. Under the Lower Empire crystal rings were also used for the same purpose. These were solid, carved out of a single stone, and had the face engraved with an intaglio as a signet. [Fernie, 201-202]
Rock Crystal was also ascribed the power of producing the Sacred Fire, the fire most grateful to the gods. Laid upon wood chips in the sun, it produced first smoke then flames. It was also used to burn the skin as a means of cauterization. [Fernie, 222]
Clear Quartz has forever carried a place of importance in spiritual and religious beliefs. The Japanese call it tama, "the perfect jewel." It is a symbol of purity, the infinity of space, of patience and perseverance. The smaller Rock Crystals were believed to be the congealed breath of the White Dragon, while the larger and more brilliant ones were said to be the saliva of the Violet Dragon. The dragon, emblematic of the highest powers of creation, shows the esteem by which many of the Oriental cultures place on this stone. [Simmons, 318][Kunz, 217]
In Hindu mythology a wonderful tank formed of crystal was provided by the god Maya. Its bottom and sides were encrusted with pearls and in the center was a raised platform blazing with precious stones. The transparent crystal produced such an illusion of water that those approaching the tank were tempted to plunge into the clear, fresh water for a refreshing bath. [Kunz, 237]
Quartz crystal is referenced in many religions as foundation jewels in mystic cities, trees of life, in homage to deities and worn by their prophets for power. Clear Quartz is one of the seven precious substances of Buddhism, and is perhaps the "diamond" listed in the second row of the Breastplate of the High Priest in the Bible. Ancient priests used Clear Quartz to render negative energy useless, to dissolve enchantments and spells, and to destroy all black magic. [Melody, 506][Hall II, 17-18]
Indigenous cultures in North America and Burma believed Clear Quartzes to be living entities and presented them with food as ritual offerings. The Cherokee Indians, for example, believed Rock Crystal to have great power to aid in hunting and divining, and one owner was reputed to keep his crystal wrapped up in buckskin and hidden in a sacred cave. At designated times he would take it out and "feed" it by rubbing it over the blood of a deer. [Simmons, 318][Kunz 254-5]
In Central and South American cultures, Quartz crystals carved in the shapes of human skulls were venerated as powerful religious objects, the dwellings of deceased ancestors or gods. An ancient Mayan legend claims there were thirteen sacred crystal skulls hidden in different places and must all be found and brought together before the December 21, 2012 when the Mayan calendar cycle ends or Earth will be knocked off its axis. [Simmons, 318][Eason, 348]
Nearly every culture extolled the virtues of Clear Quartz for medicinal healing. It was used in Rome and medieval England for cases of dysentery and colic, for glandular swelling, pain, and held against the tongue to reduce fever and slake thirst. It was also reputed to be astringent, to produce an abundance of milk, good for gout and for breaking up stones in the body. In the Scottish Highlands, a crystal set in silver and worn around the neck was considered effective for diseases of the kidneys. [Fernie, 200, 222][Melody, 506][Kunz, 133]
At one time or another, Clear Quartz was carved and used for vases, cups and ornaments, worn as a symbol of high rank and placed in tombs and scepters of royalty, valued as amulets for magical powers, rain-making, lighting sacrificial fires, and was the original "glass" of windows, beads and spectacles. [Fernie, 179, 199][Kunz, 203]
Sir Isaac Newton discovered the color spectrum by refracting sunlight through a natural crystal. Reflecting the rainbow on his wall allowed him to measure the different lengths of the rays of the visible light spectrum. [Mella, 82]
Rock Crystal is considered a Gem of winter, and appropriate for giving on a fifteenth wedding anniversary. [Kunz, 326, 337]
The symbols [ ] enclose the author's name and a page number for a reference cited from the following books:
[Ahsian, pp.] Robert Simmons & Naisha Ahsian, The Book of Stones (Berkley, CA: North Atlantic Books, 2007).
[Eason, pp. ]Cassandra Eason, The New Crystal Bible (London: Carlton Books Ltd., 2010).
[Fernie, pp.] William T. Fernie, The Occult and Curative Powers of Precious Stones (Blauvelt, NY: Rudolph Steiner Publications, 1973).
[Gienger, pp.] Michael Gienger, Healing Crystals (Scotland: Earthdancer Books, 2009).
[Hall, pp.] Judy Hall, The Crystal Bible (Cincinnati, OH: Walking Stick Press, 2003).
[Hall 2, pp.]Judy Hall, The Crystal Bible 2 (Cincinnati, OH: Walking Stick Press, 2009).
[Kunz, pp.] George Frederick Kunz, The Curious Lore of Precious Stones (New York: Dover Publications, 1971).
[Megemont, pp.] Florence Megemont, The Metaphysical Book of Gems and Crystals (Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press, 2008).
[Mella, pp.] Dorothee L. Mella, Stone Power II (Albuquerque, NM: Brotherhood of Life, Inc., 1986).
[Melody, pp.] Melody, Love Is In The Earth (Wheat Ridge, CO: Earth-Love Publishing House, 1995).
[Raphaell, pp.] Katrina Raphaell, Crystal Enlightenment (Santa Fe, NM: Aurora Press, 1985)
[Simmons, pp.] Robert Simmons & Naisha Ahsian, The Book of Stones (Berkley, CA: North Atlantic Books, 2007).