Your On-Line Guide to
The Healing Energies, Metaphysical Properties,
Legendary Uses and Meaning
Introduction to the Meaning and Uses of Peridot
The glorious yellow-green Peridot has been under-appreciated for years, overlooked as a lesser gem, small, easily obtained and relatively inexpensive, often considered as simply the birthstone for August. Its popularity has fallen in and out of vogue for centuries. However, a new resurgence is bringing to light what Peridot lovers have always known: this is a truly remarkable stone.
Called “the extreme gem” by the Gemological Institute of America, Peridot is born of fire and brought to light, one of only two gems (Diamond is the other) formed not in the Earth’s crust, but in molten rock of the upper mantle and brought to the surface by the tremendous forces of earthquakes and volcanoes. While these Peridots are born of Earth, other crystals of Peridot have extraterrestrial origins, found in rare pallasite meteorites (only 61 known to date) formed some 4.5 billion years ago, remnants of our solar system’s birth. Peridot in its basic form, Olivine, was also found in comet dust brought back from the Stardust robotic space probe in 2006, has been discovered on the moon, and detected by instrument on Mars by NASA’s Global Surveyor. Ancients believed, quite accurately, that Peridot was ejected to Earth by a sun’s explosion and carries its healing power. [www.gia.edu][www.gemselect.com][en.wikipedia.org][www.peridot.com][Mella, 95-96]
Peridot, in shades of olive, is one of the few gemstones that forms in only one color. Beautifully faceted, it evokes the lateness of summer and the onset of fall, as leaves morph from green to gold and hang like jewels in the sunlight. It is a crystal of warmth and well-being, mentally stimulating and physically regenerating. It carries the gift of inner radiance, sharpening the mind and opening it to new levels of awareness and growth, helping one to recognize and realize one’s destiny and spiritual purpose. [Raphaell, 150][Fernie, 163][Melody, 478][Hall, 213]
Associated with the sun, Peridot has been prized since the earliest civilizations for its protective powers to drive away the forces of darkness. Set in gold and worn around the neck or bound to the left arm, it was used as a charm against sorcery and magic, evil spirits, night terrors, and madness. It cured cowardice, calmed anger, as well as brightening the wit. Peridot is still celebrated for those virtues, protecting the aura, purifying the physical and subtle bodies, and alleviating emotional burdens, guilt and obsessions. It is particularly beneficial for overcoming fear, depression and other psychological disturbances, as well as releasing jealousies, resentment and spite in order to move forward. Peridot promotes responsibility and forgiveness, instilling confidence in one’s own abilities and reestablishing a sense of self-worth. A powerful generator of the frequency of increase, this lovely talisman may be utilized to manifest abundance in all areas of one’s life: wealth, health, happiness and love. [Fernie, 163][Kunz, 67][Hall, 212-213][101 Hall, 150][Simmons, Ahsian, 299][Eason, 282]
Peridot (pronounced pair-uh-doe) is the gem form of Olivine, a magnesium iron silicate mineral of the forsterite-fayalite family, with the amount of iron being responsible for the color. While Olivine is an abundant mineral, gem-quality Peridot is rather rare, especially in larger stones. It varies from bright yellow-green, lime or pure green, to deep olive or brownish-green; the most valued being a dark olive-green. It occurs for the most part as an eye-clean gem with excellent transparency, and is typically faceted. There is no known treatment to improve its color or clarity and therefore is not heat-treated or enhanced in any way. There have been reports, however, of unscrupulous producers using metal-foiling to increase stability or to coat paler stones. [www.gemdat.org][www.gemselect.com]
Known as the “true Topaz” in the ancient world, yellow-green Peridot was first called Topazos, named for the obscure and inhospitable Topazios Island in the Red Sea on which it was discovered. These unique gems of Olivine (not the fluorine-bearing mineral we refer to today as Topaz) were mined explicitly for the Egyptian kings, who kept the region so closely guarded anyone trying to approach without permission was threatened with death. The Egyptians held a monopoly on the mysterious island for over 3,500 years, and it was then abandoned for centuries, only to be rediscovered around 1905. It was renamed St. John’s Island, and finally Zabargad, an Arabic term for Olivine, or Peridot. Peridot in its more yellow or golden hues was also referred to as Chrysolite in biblical times, Greek for kreusos (gold) and lithos (stone). The current term “Peridot” is derived from the Arabic word faridat, meaning “gem.” While it is currently mined in many parts of the world, it is still the National Gem of Egypt. [Fernie, 163][Kunz, 66][www.gia.edu][Lecouteux, 320][Mella, 95][www.gemselect.com][www.jewelsforme.com]
Peridot Uses and Purposes
Peridot is highly beneficial for attuning to and regulating the cycles of one’s life, such as physical cycles, mental or emotional phases, as well as intellectual progression. It also helps dissipate negative patterns and old vibrations that play over and over, keeping one from realizing they are deserving of success. By working with Peridot one can remove those blockages and move forward quickly, opening the heart and mind more fully to receive from the Universe with grace and gratitude. [Melody, 478][Hall, 213][Simmons, Ahsian, 299]
A stone of transformation, Peridot is excellent for use in recovery from tobacco or inhalant dependencies, as well as other addictions. More importantly, it is a wounded healer stone, serving as a vital guide in facilitating healing processes that help others going through what you have already overcome. It is considered very effective in amplifying Reiki energies. Hold immediately after treatments using heat or warmth, such as sweat lodges, hot rocks or a sauna to continue the beneficial effects. [Lembo, 248][Ahsian, 299][Eason, 282]
Peridot is ideal for discharging emotional issues that affect the physical body. Place it over the Solar Plexus to relax and release nervous tension, known as “butterflies,” as well as to alleviate fear and guilt, anxiety or impatience. Place Peridot over the Heart Chakra to relieve heaviness of heart, empower forgiveness, or alleviate destructive jealousy or self-doubt caused by betrayal in past relationships. [Raphaell, 150][Mella, 96][Megemont, 149][Eason, 282]
Use Peridot to gain results when seeking items that are lost or mislaid in the physical world, as well as in the quest for an enlightened state. [Melody, 479]
Wear Peridot set in gold to bring peaceful sleep. It is especially effective for those who suffer from recurring nightmares about evil spirits, murders or sexual attacks. [Eason, 282][Kunz, 67]
Wear or carry Peridot as a talisman of luck and as a sun stone to prevent personal darkness. It adds charm and eloquence to your presentations, evokes a positive, helpful response from normally unhelpful people, and increases profit in trades. It is naturally protective against envy, gossip behind your back, and people who would deceive you. [Mella, 96][Lecouteux, 320][Eason, 282]
Peridot Healing Therapies - Overview
(Please note: Information on this web site is no substitute for consulting a health care professional. All information contained on this web site, including information relating to medical and health conditions, products and treatments, is for informational purposes only. Please see your doctor or health care professional before starting any alternative treatments, diets, supplements or exercise programs.)
Peridot Physical Healing Energy
Peridot assists in balancing the endocrine system, especially the adrenal glands, which govern the health of the physical body, and acts as a tonic to liven the entire system making it healthier, stronger and more radiant. This stone supports the digestive system and the proper assimilation of nutrients from food, water and light, and may be used to aid optimal functioning of the gall bladder, liver, pancreas and spleen. [Raphaell, 150][Melody, 479][Lembo, 249][Hall, 213][Eason, 282]
Peridot may also be used to help strengthen the eyes with relation to astigmatism and nearsightedness, and to provide relief from, and aid in, the healing of ulcers of the stomach and duodenum. [Melody, 479][Hall, 213][Eason, 282]
Placed on the abdomen, Peridot has been utilized as a facilitator for the birthing process, stimulating contractions and assisting the opening of the birth canal, lessening pain. [Melody, 479][101 Hall, 150][Hall, 213][Eason, 282]
Peridot may be used in conjunction with treatments for psychological disorders, and has been thought to energetically balance the swings of bipolar disorder. It is a marvelous aid for overcoming hypochondria, depression, and melancholy. [Hall, 213][101 Hall, 150][Megemont, 149]
Peridot Emotional Healing Energy
Peridot is an extraordinary crystal for healing the emotional body and resolving matters of the heart. It cleanses and heals hurt feelings and “bruised egos,” lessening anger, jealousy, resentment and spite, while teaching one to understand that holding onto people, or the past, is counterproductive to one’s growth. It teaches one to examine the past for the gift of the experiences, admit mistakes and let go of guilt and blame, forgiving oneself, or others, in order to move forward. [Melody, 478-479][Hall, 212-213][101 Hall, 150][Gienger, 67][Raphaell, 150][Lembo, 249]
Peridot stimulates psychological clarity and inspires a sense of happiness and contentedness in one’s life. It empowers one to detach the mind from outside influences and have confidence in one’s own abilities, looking inward for guidance and accessing the wisdom of the higher mind. It initiates independence and assertion without aggression, accepting the world as it is, then transforming it with clear intention to create the reality one wishes to have. [Melody, 478-479][Hall, 212-213][101 Hall, 150][Gienger, 67][Raphaell, 150][Lembo, 249]
Peridot carries a beautiful green energy that activates the Heart Chakra, located near the center of the breastbone. It regulates our interaction with the external world and controls what we embrace and what we resist. It gives us the balancing ability to be ourselves within the environment. When the Heart Chakra is out of balance we may feel either controlling or controlled in a relationship, and become critical of the little foibles of others. We may find ourselves having inappropriately strong emotional responses to everyday external stimuli. Green crystal energy is used to resolve blockages and to re-balance the Heart Chakra, helping us understand our own needs and emotions clearly. We can deal with the ebbs and flows of emotional relationships, understand their cyclic nature, and accept the changes.
Yellow energy within Peridot activates the Solar Plexus Chakra, the energy distribution center and the chakra of relationships. This chakra is located between the ribcage and navel, and controls the immune and digestive systems. When balanced physically, we have strength to fight infections, are free of allergic reactions, and are able to use the nutrients we ingest. When the Solar Plexus is out of balance spiritually, we feel fear - of the disappointment or displeasure of others, or to subordinating our life and pleasures to the will of others. Spiritually, when the Solar Plexus Chakra is in balance we are free to interpret the world through our own thoughts and emotions and not live in fear of violating the dictums of others.
As Peridot provides a shield of protection around the body, it should be removed from one’s person prior to balancing and aligning the physical body with the other bodies, and prior to cleansing chakras other than those related to its color. Upon completion, wearing Peridot will prevent outside influences from affecting the aligned, balanced and cleansed structure. [Melody, 478]
Peridot Spiritual Energy
Peridot is a crystal of positive power, a talisman for recognizing and honoring the Creator’s frequency of Love, the source of all abundance. Used with right intent, it helps expand one’s ability to receive from the Universe on all levels of life. This crystal is attuned to spiritual truth and the understanding of one’s destiny. It is not meant to take one out of this world, but to bring the physical dimension of reality into alignment with one’s inner truth. Peridot allows one to connect to higher realms of consciousness in order to quiet spiritual fears, such as guilt, regret, or feelings of karmic debt. It empowers one to take responsibility and make amends in order to move forward in one’s evolutionary path. Peridot activates the energies of the Third and Fourth Chakras, reminding one that Love and Will reside together and it is how these are used that creates worthiness. [Simmons, 299][Ahsian, 299][Hall, 213][Lembo, 248]
Peridot is also an Elven stone, carrying the frequency of interdimensional Earth beings who share our planet. It may be used to connect with the fairy and devic realms, and to communicate with Nature spirits of all types, including the plant and animal kingdoms. It is an excellent stone for animal and Earth healers. [Ahsian, 299]
Yellow-green or Olive Peridot combines the green rays of growth with the yellow rays of pure sunshine, a time of development, strength and maturity. It enhances our receptiveness to new meanings and ideas, and lights the path to wisdom and understanding. It is a talisman of the search for knowledge and enlightenment. In lighter shades, Olive Peridot provides the perseverance needed in our quest for understanding the natural universe, efforts that require deep concentration, determination, and endurance for mental challenges. In deeper tones, Olive Peridot is a “Study Stone,” aiding us in the long quest for a higher state of understanding or awareness. It is excellent for achieving goals that need deep constancy and long-term purpose - not wild, exuberant growth, but the slow, steady development and deep caring of a life’s calling.
Peridot emits a beautiful frequency of peace and well-being, and is remarkable for use in prayers and meditations to access higher realms of consciousness and to connect with Divine energies. Meditating with Peridot promotes understanding and insight, teaching one to appreciate one’s own unique perfection and purpose in this world. It is marvelous for opening the mind to unlimited possibilities and transforming traits such as jealousy, self-sabotage and impatience into love, compassion, acceptance, and gratitude. [Lembo, 248-249][101 Hall, 150][www.healing-crystals-for-you.com]
The Divinatory meaning of Peridot: Rely on luck and take a chance on a new offer or opportunity rather than holding back. [Eason, 282]
In antiquity, dreaming of Chrysolite (Peridot) indicated the need for necessary caution. [Kunz, 358]
Peridot is ideal to gain the assistance of Archangels Sabrael and Zadkiel. [Lembo, 248] It is also a stone for the Archangel Raphael and ruling the realm of Angelic Virtues. [101 Hall, 150] If your birthday falls in any of the following periods, a Peridot in various shades of olive can be a valuable conduit to your Guardian Angel. The table also provides the name of the Guardian Angel of those born in the time period.
There are other Angels that are partial to Peridot. The table below gives you information about them.
Peridot honors Lakshmi, the Hindu Goddess of Fortune and Abundance. She is often shown with four arms representing the spiritual values of righteousness, desire, wealth and deliverance.
Peridot honors Pax, the Roman Goddess of Peace and Prosperity. She is often depicted holding an olive branch of peace and serenity, and a cornucopia symbolizing plenty and good harvest.
Peridot honors Nisaba, the Summerian Knowledge Goddess and Goddess of the Palace Archives. As a writer, scribe, activist and architect, she is symbolized by an inscribing stylus. She also helps with interpreting dreams.
Peridot also honors Pele, the Hawaiian Goddess of Fire and Volcanoes.
Crystals of green and gold honor Persephone, the Greek Goddess of Spring. She represents celebration and the Earth alive with new growth.
There are several ways to find an appropriate birthstone. The traditional one is listed first. These are from the popular lists that most people are familiar with. The second way is to find your natural birthstone by the color wheel of life. You can click on the Natural Birthstone graphic below to learn more. Finally many people use the traditional stones of the Zodiac.
In this section you will find information on all three approaches.
Peridot is the traditional birthstone of August. Chrysolite was also the historical birthstone for September.
Peridot which is olive in color is one of the natural birthstones of those born in the magical month of awakening, as the greens of spring are giving way to the bright yellows of the approaching summer (May 21 - June 20). Olive crystals bring you awakening, exuberance, learning, and meaning.Â
Peridot is the zodiac stone for those born under the sign of Libra, between September 23 and October 22, the middle of the harvest. Libra is the only sign that is an inanimate object - a balance beam, referred to as The Balance. During this month the days and nights are equal length, and the Earth and Sun are in balance. Librans are very strong-willed, artistic, sensitive, and respectful. They are understanding and relate well to other people.
Peridot has been used as an amulet of protection since the beginning of man’s civilization, used to dispel sorcery and magic, terrors of the night, evil spirits, melancholy and madness, as well as to sharpen the mind. Worn around the neck or bound to the left arm, it should always be set in gold to achieve its highest powers. [Fernie, 163][Kunz, 67][Mella, 95-96]
Peridot is a Dispeller Strengthener crystal. Dispeller crystal lattices act like a radiator with sharp points from which energy can flow easily outward, carrying with it the undesirable elements in our life. They are helpful talismans to relieve the everyday concerns of our physical, mental and spiritual problems. Dispellers are also known as Restorers. They put things right again after they are out of balance.
Strengtheners are crystals that are chemically formed in the island silicate class. This class of minerals forms very compact materials that are strong, resistant, and unyielding. Strengthener crystals provide the energy to resist temptations and resist distractions from your goals.
Peridot utilizes Wood energy, the energy of growth, expansion, new beginnings, nourishment and health. It enhances vitality, brings abundance, and keeps us growing physically. Use green crystals to enhance any space used for eating, in the room of a small child, or in a place of your home where you are beginning a new project. Wood energy is traditionally associated with the East and Southeast areas of a home or room. It is associated with the Family and Health area, and the Prosperity and Abundance area.
Peridot in Ancient Lore and Legend
The mysterious island of Topazios in the Red Sea is recorded by many of the ancient historians to be the original source of the green, translucent gem we know today as Peridot. The Greek historian, Agatharcides, and the Greek scholar, Alexander Polyhistor, both refer to this island in relation to the gem, as does the great naturalist, Pliny the Elder, and King Juba II of Maurentania. The legends they retell speak of piratical troglodytes, or cave dwellers, who being exhausted from storms and hunger, came ashore on an Arabian island called Chytis or Cytis. In digging for herbs and roots in the ground, they unearthed the first “topazos.” Juba also claims this island in the Red Sea, one day’s sailing from the continent, is shrouded by fog and often sought by navigators when they have no guiding light, and is named for this circumstance, for in the troglodyte language topazin means “to look for.” Topazios Island was also referred to in antiquity as the “Island of Death,” “Snake Island” or “the Serpent Isle.” [www.gia.edu][Lecouteux, 320][Kunz, 66-67][Fernie, 163, 167][101 Hall, 150]
The Greek historian, Diodorus Siculus, further elaborated on the legend claiming the Egyptian Pharoahs, who highly prized these stones for their personal adornment, commanded the inhabitants of the island to collect the specimens and deliver them to the gem-cutters for polishing. These gems were also given to the counsel priests as curatives to keep their minds free from envious thoughts and jealousies concerning the Pharoah’s powers. The island and its mines were closely guarded by royal watchers with orders to put to death any unauthorized persons attempting to land and steal the topazos. Even those with the right to seek the gems were reported to only be able to see them after nightfall, when they were revealed by their radiance. They then marked the spot and could find the stones the following day. [Kunz, 66][www.gia.edu][Mella, 95]
To the ancient world Peridot was the “true Topaz,” though it is not a Topaz in the mineralogical sense. The term “Topaz” often referred to precious stones in gold or yellow hues. Lighter yellow-green Peridot was also called Chrysolite, Greek for “goldstone,” at a time when the Greek prefix, chrysos, meant golden (yellow). Modern scholars are quite certain the “Topaz” listed in the Bible as Pitdah, the second stone in the Breastplate of the High Priest, was actually a Peridot from Zabargad, as was the fabulous stone that once adorned King Ezekiel from Tyrus around 586 B.C. Peridots of a greener hue were often mistaken for Emeralds, a favorite of Queen Cleopatra. Some historians believe many of her Emerald jewels, if not all, were in fact Peridots from Egypt. Other magnificent specimens found their way into the churches and cathedrals of Europe either by loot or trade during the Crusades, with the most notable being in the Treasury of the Three Magi in the great Dome of the Cathedral at Cologne. Ancient Romans called Peridot the “Evening Emerald,” since its color did not darken at night but could still be admired by candlelight or campfire. [Fernie, 163, 165][Kunz, 66, 291, 301][Mella, 95][www.gia.edu][www.gemselect.com][www.jewelsforme.com][mindat.org]
In the 8th century, Rabanus Maurus, Archbishop of Mainz, considered the Chrysolite (Peridot) as one of the twelve Apocalyptic gems as it reflected true spiritual preaching accompanied by miracles. Andreas, Bishop of CÃ¦sarea, in the 10th century associated it with the apostle Bartholomew, as it gleamed with the splendor of gold, and that apostle was known for his divine preaching and his store of virtues. Some, however, attribute the Chrysolite to Matthias for he, and the stone, were pure as sunshine. [Kunz, 305, 312][101 Hall, 150][Fernie, 45]
The magician Agrippa declared in German High Magic, a Peridot held to the sun would shine forth a golden star, soothing the respiratory system and healing asthma. In powdered form, it was kept in apothecaries’ shops and sold for this ailment, as well as an antidote to madness, lack of sleep, to relieve night terrors, and to help stop bleeding. It could be mixed with wine and swallowed or applied topically. It was also reported to curb anger, reduce lust, provide a good memory, and heal eye diseases, the liver and varicose tumors. [101 Hall, 150][Lecouteux, 320][Fernie, 165-167][Kunz, 67]
Fashioned into beads, cut into gems, or carved into talismans, Peridots have held significance for thousands of years. Whether worn as an amulet of protection or for increase in one’s love and happiness, eloquency, and profit, it was required to be set in gold for its virtues to be the most powerful. The following examples were gleaned from historical writings:
- Peridot was thought to give notice of poisoning by losing its color, and was also a meteorological stone. When the moon was rainy, it gave off a bad smell or darkened in color, but when good weather was coming it was clear and glowing. Its powers were reputed to increase and decrease with the waxing or waning of the moon. [Fernie, 163][Lecouteux, 321][Fernie, 165]
- If an image of Poseidon in a harnessed chariot is etched on this stone, with the reins in his left hand and a blade of wheat in his right, and Amphitrite above the chariot, the Peridot bestows love, property and effectiveness in hydromancy.
- Carved with a falcon, it produces grace, charity, and love, giving nobility to the wearer. It disposes a king or prince to increased benevolence. In the past, national leaders who wore Peridot publicly were thought to be gentle, fair and wise. [Lecouteux, 321][www.gemselect.com][Kunz, 133]
- A crowned man rising through the air depicted on a Peridot renders its owner as good, obliging, and esteemed by others, and will bring him honors and consideration. [Lecouteux, 321]
- An ass carved on a Chrysolite (Peridot) gives one with the skill of prophesy the power to divine the future. [Kunz, 133]
- A vulture on a Chrysolite (Peridot) has the power to constrain demons and the winds, keeping them from coming together in the place where the gem may be. It forces the demons to cease their demands and places them under the wearer’s control. [Kunz, 133][101 Hall, 150]
- Wearing a Peridot engraved with the symbol of a torchbearer brings wealth. [Simmons, 298]
Peridot and its base mineral, Olivine, were formed in Earth’s infancy, created in magma and spewed to the surface by active volcanoes. Falling to the ground, the molten crystals were forced to take on the shape of a teardrop, and was the reason ancient Hawaiians thought Peridot and Olivine were tears of the volcano goddess Pele. Known for her hot temper, legends speak of a curse she placed on anyone who disturbs or steals from her home. Each year, thousands of pieces of Peridot and lava rocks, taken as souvenirs, are mailed back to Hawaii from guilty people all over the world who claim to have had horrible misfortunes since taking the stones from Pele’s home and ask for her forgiveness. [Eason, 281][HSN.com][www.steffansjewelers.com]
As the mines of Zabargad were slowly depleted, the world lost its fascination for Peridot, though it became exceptionally popular again in Europe during the Baroque period (1500-1700), a favorite of wealthy monarchs before it once again faded away. Peridot was most abundant and popular during the 1930’s and 40’s during World War II, for its affordability during economically depressed times. It was sometimes referred to as “a poor man’s Emerald.” A new discovery in the mid 1990’s of a sensationally rich deposit in Pakistan, some 4,000 meters up an inhospitable pass, brought a new surge of excitement to gem fairs all around the world. These newly discovered Peridots were of the finest ever found, with large, clear crystals of a lush magnificent green. Some have been cut at more than 100 carats. These gems have been offered as “Kashmir Peridots,” following the famous Kashmir Sapphires, and while still being mined, along with those of other locations, for the immediate future assures the demand for Peridot can be satisfied. [academic.emporia.edu][www.gemstone.org][Raphaell, 150]
Peridot was considered to be a gem of spring, a symbol of the sun worn for luck and success. [Kunz, 326][Mella, 95][Simmons, 298] It was assigned to the planet Jupiter, and today is the traditional gift given on the occasion of a 16th wedding anniversary. [www.gemselect.com][Hall, 45][www.peridot.com]
The symbols [ ] enclose the author's name and a page number for a reference cited from the following books:
[Ahsian, pp.] Robert Simmons & Naisha Ahsian, The Book of Stones (Berkley, CA: North Atlantic Books, 2007).
[Altman, pp.] Jennifer Altman, Gem and Stone: Jewelry of Earth, Sea, and Sky. (San Francisco, Chronicle Books, 2012)
[Eason, pp. ]Cassandra Eason, The New Crystal Bible (London: Carlton Books Ltd., 2010).
[Fernie, pp.] William T. Fernie, The Occult and Curative Powers of Precious Stones (Blauvelt, NY: Rudolph Steiner Publications, 1973).
[Gienger, pp.] Michael Gienger, Healing Crystals (Scotland: Earthdancer Books, 2009).
[Hall, pp.] Judy Hall, The Crystal Bible (Cincinnati, OH: Walking Stick Press, 2003).
[Hall 2, pp.]Judy Hall, The Crystal Bible 2 (Cincinnati, OH: Walking Stick Press, 2009).
[Hall III, pp.] Judy Hall, 101 Power Crystals (Beverly, MA: Fair Winds Press, 2011).
[Kunz, pp.] George Frederick Kunz, The Curious Lore of Precious Stones (New York: Dover Publications, 1971).
[Lembo, pp.] Margaret Lembo The Essential Guide to Crystals, Minerals, & Stones (Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn Worldwide, 2013).
[Lecouteux, pp.] Claude Lecouteux, A Lapidary of Sacred Stones (Rochester, VT: Inner Traditions, U.S. edition, 2012).
[Margherita,pp.] Margherita, The Crystal Lotus Handbook (Ontario, Canada: The Crystal Lotus, 2010).
[Megemont, pp.] Florence Megemont, The Metaphysical Book of Gems and Crystals (Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press, 2008).
[Mella, pp.] Dorothee L. Mella, Stone Power II (Albuquerque, NM: Brotherhood of Life, Inc., 1986).
[Melody, pp.] Melody, Love Is In The Earth (Wheat Ridge, CO: Earth-Love Publishing House, 1995).
[Raphaell, pp.] Katrina Raphaell, Crystal Enlightenment (Santa Fe, NM: Aurora Press, 1985)
[Simmons, pp.] Robert Simmons & Naisha Ahsian, The Book of Stones (Berkley, CA: North Atlantic Books, 2007).