Sapphire Meanings and Uses
Your On-Line Guide to
The Healing Energies, Metaphysical Properties,
Legendary Uses, and Meaning
Introduction to Meaning and Uses of Sapphire
The magnificent and holy Sapphire, in all its celestial hues, is a stone of wisdom and royalty, of prophecy and Divine favor. It is forever associated with sacred things and considered the gem of gems, a jewel steeped in the history and lore of nearly every religion. To the ancient and medieval world, Sapphire of heavenly blue signified the height of celestial hope and faith, and was believed to bring protection, good fortune and spiritual insight. It was a symbol of power and strength, but also of kindness and wise judgment.
In Hebrew lore, King Solomon and Abraham both wore talismans of Sapphire, and the Law given to Moses on the Mount was said to be engraved on tablets of Sapphire. The Greeks wore it for wisdom at Delphi when seeking answers from the Oracle at Apollo’s Shrine. Buddhists believed it brought devotion and spiritual enlightenment, and the Hindus considered Sapphire as one of the “great gems” used in offerings in the temples for worship and to align astrological influences. In Christianity it was used in ecclesiastical rings, and was cherished by kings and nobility for its powers of protection and insight. [Kunz, 104, 241][Mella, 103][Eason, 247][Fernie, 96, 102-103]
As a talisman, Sapphire was thought to preserve chastity, discover fraud and treachery, protect its wearer from poison, plague, fever and skin diseases, and had great power in resisting black magic and ill-wishing. It healed ailments of the eyes, increased concentration, and would lose luster if worn by an intemperate or impious person. [www.sacred-texts.com]
Today Sapphire is still a Stone of Wisdom, a royal stone of learning, mental acuity and psychic activation, a seeker after spiritual truth. Its pure Blue Ray brings order and healing to the mind, lending strength and focus, and an ability to see beneath surface appearances to underlying truths and to utilize that knowledge. It stimulates the Throat and Third Eye Chakras, allowing one to access deeper levels of consciousness in order to gain a fuller understanding of self. Associated with the planet Saturn, Blue Sapphire embraces order, structure, and self-discipline, and is ideal for accomplishing goals and manifesting ideas into form. Sapphire’s power to transmute negative thoughts and energy also makes it highly effective for earth and chakra healing. [Hall, 253][Ahsian, 340][Simmons, 339]
Sapphire is a variety of Corundum, an aluminum oxide mineral that forms in prismatic tabular, bipyramidal or rhombohedral crystals, as well as granular or massive habits, and may be transparent to opaque. Blue is considered Sapphire’s “true” color and the one most often recognized, though Sapphire does form in a diversity of colors (listed below), and will have the color added to its name (for example: Green Sapphire, Yellow Sapphire). Additional mineral compounds forming with aluminum oxide are responsible for the different coloration, and in the case of Blue Sapphire, iron and titanium provide its heavenly hues. With the exception of Red Corundum, which is Ruby, all other colors of Corundum are Sapphires. [Mella, 103][Simmons, 339][www.mindat.org]
Blue Sapphire ranges in hue from pale to deep azure or dark royal blue, to indigo, with the most highly desired color being the velvety cornflower blue, also called Kashmir or bleu de roi. The name Sapphire is derived from the Latin sapphirus, Greek sappheiros, and Sanskrit sanipryam, meaning “blue stone.” Recent research indicates what we know today as Lapis Lazuli was also referred to as Sapphire in the ancient world, and much of the Sapphire described in the Bible and other texts would have actually been Lapis Lazuli. [Fernie, 96, 102, 104][Megemont, 162][Mella, 21, 37, 103][www.mineral.net][Eason, 247]
For metaphysical purposes, this page will discuss the overall properties of Sapphire and attributes specific to Blue Sapphire. Though all Sapphires are stones of wisdom, individual colors carry different vibrational strengths and their properties may be discussed on a separate page.
- Black Sapphire brings the wisdom of confidence in one’s own intuition. It is protective and grounding, relieves anxiety and sorrow, and is a talisman for seeking and maintaining employment.
- Green Sapphire brings the wisdom of fidelity and integrity. It encourages compassion for others, stimulates vision, and improves dream recall.
- Orange or Padparadsha Sapphire brings the wisdom of loving creation from the heart to the world. It unites one’s creativity, sensuality and spirituality, and is a talisman of artists, writers and singers.
- Pink Sapphire brings the wisdom of resilience. It stimulates emotions and encourages love, forgiveness, and release of the past. It honors acceptance and strength of heart.
- Violet Sapphire brings the wisdom of spiritual awakening. It stimulates meditation, opens the Crown Chakra and allows the kundalini to rise unimpeded. It initiates oneness and peace.
- White Sapphire brings wisdom and strength of spirit, providing the inner resolve needed in overcoming difficult obstacles to one’s spiritual path. It brings clarity to the mind, and communication with higher guidance.
- Yellow Sapphire brings wisdom and prosperity. It not only assists in bringing financial abundance, but stimulates the inner will through the solar plexus to creatively focus and manifest one’s goals and ambitions.
Star Sapphires are created when Corundum is intergrown with fibrous inclusions of Rutile, “silk,” that reflects light in stones cut en cabochon as a six-rayed, sometimes twelve-rayed star that appears to glide across the face of the gem as it is moved. This effect is called asterism and increases the rarity and value of the stone. The most famous Star Sapphire is the Star of India found around 300 years ago and is housed in the American Museum of Natural History in New York City. It is blue and flawless, the size of a golf ball with stars on both sides, and is a stone of great religious significance. [Simmons, 345][Eason, 365][Mella, 104]
Star Sapphire has the same metaphysical properties as the color of Sapphire it appears in, with an enhanced energy and intensification of those properties. The star itself represents the manifestation of Divine knowledge and Light into denser reality, and reminds us that the outer manifestations we treasure are a reflection of the Light of our own essence. The three lines that cross in the six-rayed star represent faith, hope and destiny, sometimes associated with three angels who offer protection to those who wear Star Sapphire. The moving star brings ongoing safety to travelers and guides their way home. [Ahsian, 345][Simmons, 345][Eason, 365]
Sapphire Uses and Purposes - Overview
Sapphire is exceptional for calming and focusing the mind, allowing the release of mental tension and unwanted thoughts. It encourages opening the mind to beauty and intuition, bringing lightness and joy as it restores balance within the body. [Melody, 584][Hall, 253]
Use Blue Sapphire to stay on your spiritual path, and for assistance in matters of self discipline, whether routine daily tasks or actions requiring extreme focus. [Hall, 253][Simmons, 340] It helps during times of change to maintain clear vision of where it is you want to go and how to get there. [Eason, 247]
Sapphires are a symbol of integrity and are highly effective for the speedy and positive resolution of legal matters and issues concerning justice. Since Blue Sapphire was traditionally worn when treaties were signed, wear or carry even a small piece of it when signing contracts or payment negotiations, for yourself or on another’s behalf. [Eason, 247]
Blue Sapphire is effective for channeling healing powers from an angelic or higher source into the healer, and is popular with Reiki healers. Sapphire also amplifies healing through the voice. [Eason, 247]
Blue Sapphire is a stone of love, commitment and fidelity, and has become popular in betrothal rings. Matching Sapphire tumblestones make a good gift for couples moving in together or marrying. [Eason, 247] In the event of a separation or divorce, it is advisable to remove any Sapphire jewelry gifted by the other person. Sapphires are stones of attachment and could prolong the connection or cause bitter feelings. [Megemont, 163]
As a professional support stone, Sapphire provides awareness of higher principles in archeologists and historians, stimulates the mind and wisdom in executives, ministers and writers, and increases discernment and good judgment in journalists and lawyers. [Mella, 129-133]
Star Sapphire, especially in paler shades, is a symbol of wise and honest leadership, and a good stone for businesswomen and female entrepreneurs who wish to succeed without compromising integrity. [Eason, 365] It is also an ideal tool for anyone needing assistance in grounding their ideas into reality and who requires extra energy to bring things through to completion. [Simmons, 345]
Because of its hardness (second only to Diamond), Sapphires are used in industrial applications such as components for watch crystals and movement bearings, scientific instruments, high-durability windows, and insulating substrates in special purpose solid state electronics. [www.widipedia.org]
Sapphire Healing Therapies - Overview
(Please note: Information on this web site is no substitute for consulting a health care professional. All information contained on this web site, including information relating to medical and health conditions, products and treatments, is for informational purposes only. Please see your doctor or health care professional before starting any alternative treatments, diets, supplements or exercise programs.)
Sapphire Physical Healing Energy
Blue Sapphire assists in healing all parts of the body and soothes insomnia. Used externally or as an elixir, Sapphire water is considered a good purifier and should be used as the seasons change. [Melody, 585][Megemont, 163]
Long used as a curative for eye infections and improving eyesight, Blue Sapphire is also used to relieve headaches, fever, nosebleeds, and issues of the ears, including hearing, infection, inner-ear imbalances and vertigo. [Megemont, 163][Ahsian, 340][Eason, 247]
Blue Sapphire is beneficial to the thyroid, swollen glands and in treating problems related to speech and communication. It is also considered helpful to the nervous system, and in treating blood disorders, dementia, and degenerative diseases. [Hall, 253][Eason, 247][Gienger, 77]
Sapphire Emotional Healing Energy
Sapphire frees us from our “inner prisons” and psychic suffering that can cause us to shut down emotionally. It can be an effective aid in treatments for neuroses or even psychosis. [Megemont, 163] Sapphire releases depression and lightens the mood. It brings calm and focus to the mind, and restores balance within the body. [Hall, 253][Melody, 584]
Blue Sapphire assists those who are easily swayed by the opinions of others. It promotes a fuller understanding of the self, and assists one in becoming more secure in their own opinions and knowledge, and in expressing those truths to others. [Ahsian, 340]
Star Sapphires of any hue are excellent healing crystals for those with an inferiority complex, are afraid of socializing or speaking out, or who have been told they were useless. They also lend support in following a childhood dream or ambition that seems almost impossible. [Eason, 365]
The strong Blue Rays of Sapphire are ideal for awakening and utilizing the Throat and Third Eye Chakras. Working in unison, these chakras not only have the capacity of inner vision, but the focus and ability to communicate one’s vision to others in an effective way. [Simmons, 339]
Blue Sapphire stimulates the Throat Chakra, the voice of the body. It is, in essence, a pressure valve that allows the energy from the other chakras to be expressed. If it is blocked, or out of balance, it can affect the health of the other chakras. When the Throat Chakra is in balance and open, it allows for the expression of what we think and what we feel. We can communicate our ideas, beliefs, and emotions, bringing our personal truth out into the world. We have an easy flow of energy within the body and spirit. The energy that springs upward from the lower chakras can continue its path enabling free expression and natural release. Blue crystal energy will unblock and balance the Throat Chakra. Darker shades of blue encourage the power of truth, while lighter shades carry the power of flexibility, relaxation, and balance.
Dark Blue or Indigo Sapphire stimulates the Brow Chakra, also called the Third Eye. It is the center of our perception and command, and directs our sight and everyday awareness of the world. Our consciousness is located here, and we relate to ourselves through this chakra. When the brow chakra is in balance our thoughts and internal communications within ourselves are healthy and vibrant. We are open to new ideas, dreams, and visions, and can control the flow of energy within all the chakras. Dark blue and indigo crystals are used to treat imbalances of the brow chakra. It is a quiet color, one of mystery and wisdom and judgment.
Sapphire Spiritual Energy
Sapphire is a stone of spiritual power and astuteness, bringing prosperity and helping to sustain the gifts of life. It tends to focus, emanate and radiate its energy in fulfilling dreams and desires of the consciousness, even without conscious initiation. [Gienger, 77][Melody, 584-585]
Blue Sapphire is a Wind element stone activating the higher mind. It opens awareness and communication with the higher planes, and stimulates psychic visions, extrasensory perception and one’s inner sense of knowing. It engenders strength of mind and increased learning ability, and may be used for wisdom in negative situations. It also allows one to act as a conduit in channeling received information. [Ahsain, 340][Simmons, 339]
Blue Sapphire is an excellent stone for use in alternate or past-life therapy, helping one remember other lifetimes and the lessons they provided. It can also be used to enhance hypnosis and trance states, and in shamanic ceremonies to transmute negative energies. [Ahsian, 340][Hall, 253]
Blue Sapphire reflects the color energy of the sky, as winter gives way to spring and the sun climbs higher each day. It marks the beginning of life and emotion. Blue crystals bring trust, faith, patience, and respect, lending the focus we need to become more sincere, act more responsibly, and become more trustworthy. Light blue crystals help us accept the life we have, develop patience, reconcile differences, or seek forgiveness. They’re excellent for recovery efforts from addictions or destructive patterns, aid in curbing tempers, and help us become more dependable and cheerful. Light blue crystals also assist in dealing with grief, letting go of the past, and curing guilt. Darker blue talismans enhance the respect and compassion we have within ourselves. They teach us humanity, discretion, and honor, and encourage us to act more charitably and focus our efforts on service to others.
Indigo Sapphire combines the intuition of the violet ray with the trust of the pure blue ray. It brings wisdom, truth, dignity and spiritual mastery. A stone of judgment and long life, it promotes introspection and can result in profound wisdom when used well. Dark indigo crystals provide honesty and are especially good for religious and spiritual journeys, while light indigo crystals connect us to the natural world and improve our appreciation of others.
Blue Sapphire helps activate the unconscious level of the mind and stimulate a dream state. It can be used for astral travel, lucid-dream work, or for reaching higher realms of consciousness during meditation. [Ahsian, 340]
The Divinatory meaning of Blue Sapphire: You are wondering whether to trust someone you have recently met. Take your time as you do not know the whole story yet. [Eason, 247]
Blue Sapphire varies in color from pale blue to indigo. If your birthday falls in any of the following periods, a Sapphire of the color listed can be a valuable conduit to your Guardian Angel. The table also provides the name of the Guardian Angel of those born in the time period.
There are other Angels that are partial to Sapphire. The table below gives you the information about them.
Blue Sapphire honors Juterna, the Roman Goddess of the Brooks and Ponds, and Turan, the Etruscan Goddess of Love and Beauty.
Indigo Sapphire honors Sophia, the Goddess of Wisdom and contradiction personified. She is the story of being lost then regained, the wisdom of understanding, doubting, and spiritual exploration without dogma.
Star Sapphire honors Gendenwitha, the Morning Star Goddess of the Iroquois.
There are several ways to find an appropriate birthstone. The traditional one is listed first. These are from the popular lists that most people are familiar with. The second way is to find your natural birthstone by the color wheel of life. You can click on the Natural Birthstone graphic below to learn more. Finally many people use the traditional stones of the Zodiac.
In this section you will find information on all three approaches.
Sapphire is the traditional birthstone of September. Historically, it was the birthstone of April.
Sapphire which is blue in color is one of the natural birthstones of those born as the world awaits the vernal equinox and spring (February 19 - March 19). This is a time when new life is about to burst forth, a time of faith and trust. Blue crystals bring you patience and respect.
Sapphire which is indigo in color is one of the natural birthstones of those born in midwinter (January 20 - February 18). Indigo crystals are rare and valuable. They bring you wisdom, truth, dignity, and spiritual mastery.
Sapphire is a zodiac stone for those born in the heart of spring under the sign of Taurus, from April 20 - May 20. Taurus is depicted as a bull because of its characteristics of being strong but quiet, and is ruled by the planet Venus that also rules Libra. Taureans are known for being "down to Earth," the doers and the realists. They are affectionate, known for their tempers and very stubborn.
Sapphire Amulets and Talismans
Sapphire was a talisman of kings and other nobility as a powerful defense from harm, envy, and to attract Divine favor. [Kunz, 104][Simmons, 339] It was also worn to sharpen the intellect and for protection against the bites of venomous animals. [Fernie, 87]
The Hindus wore Sapphire as a talisman to procure the favor of the planet Saturn, an unusual occurrence since, astrologically, Saturn’s influence was generally considered adverse. [Kunz, 344] In the Hellenistic period, Sapphires were also routinely inscribed with the head of Jupiter (Zeus), the god of the sky. [www.thenaturalsapphirecompany.com]
Sapphire is a Seeker Transformer crystal. Seekers contain a crystal energy structure that aligns the natural energy of the crystal to the natural power of the human mind to find the way to new horizons and new capabilities. They’re pointers, directors, and compasses; the fresh start crystals. These are talismans of the scientist, the adventurer, the hunter, wanderer, and explorer. They’re also crystals of the student and the researcher.
Transformer crystals enhance efforts to change our situations, prospects, health, outlook or relationships. By transforming ourselves we transform our lives. We learn to dance, speak a new language, grow stronger, or become a better spouse or child. Seeker crystals with the earth power of the Transformer are excellent talismans to aid our efforts to grow, develop new capabilities and change our lives.
Blue Sapphire utilizes Water energy, the energy of stillness, quiet strength, and purification. It embodies potentialities unrealized. It is yielding, formless, yet powerful. The Water element brings power of regeneration and rebirth. It is the energy of the circle of life. Use blue crystals to enhance any space that you use for repose, calm reflection, or prayer. Water energy is traditionally associated with the North area of a home or room. It is associated with the Career and Life Path area, its flowing energy assuring a balance of energy as your life unfolds and flows.
Sapphire in Ancient Lore and Legend
Sapphires were praised for bringing Divine favor and were referenced in nearly every religious history. Called the jewel of the sun god Apollo by the Greeks, Sapphire was worn when consulting the oracle at Delphi to give the questioner wisdom to understand the answer given. To the Hebrews, Sapphire was a stone of prophecy, wisdom, and Divine Glory. The Law given to Moses on the Mount was said to be engraved on tablets of Sapphire, and it was listed as the fifth stone in the Breastplate of the High Priest inscribed with the tribe Issachar. In his visions, the prophet Ezekiel compared the throne of Jehovah to a Sapphire, and the seal-stone in King Solomon’s magical ring was thought to have been a Blue Sapphire, the symbol of wisdom. Abraham was said to have worn a magnificent Sapphire around his neck, and when he died it rose to the sun. [Mella, 21, 103-104][Eason, 9, 247][Fernie, 96][Kunz, 104, 293-294]
The ancient Persians thought the Earth was balanced on a giant Sapphire that was reflected in the color of the heavens. Buddhists believed Sapphire was calming and facilitated prayer, meditation, and spiritual enlightenment; and the Hindus considered Sapphire as one of the “great gems” used in the naoratna and panchratna jewels offered in the temples for worship and to combine all of the powerful astrological influences. In Christianity, St. John saw Sapphire as the second foundation stone of the New Jerusalem in his Revelations. It signified the height of celestial hope, and in some writings, was attributed to St. Andrew as a symbol of his heavenly faith. Another writer attributed Sapphire to St. Paul since he was caught up the third heaven where his soul is firmly fixed, and where he seeks to draw all who are obedient to him. [Mella, 103][Kunz, 241-243, 302-303, 305, 312, 344][Fernie, 44][www.thenaturalsapphirecompany.com]
Considered to be a “holy” stone, Sapphire is believed to render its bearer “pacific, amiable, pious, and devout, confirming the soul in good works.” It is thought to prevent wicked and impure thoughts, and to refuse to shine for the unchaste, or the impure. St. Jerome wrote that the Sapphire procured favor with princes, pacified enemies, gave freedom from enchantment and captivity, and could ease the wrath of God himself. [Fernie, 95-96, 102, 104]
Sapphires have long been regarded as especially appropriate for use in ecclesiastical rings, worn by priests and high dignitaries for symbols of chastity and to represent Heaven. When a new Cardinal is elected by the Pope in the Roman Catholic Church, he receives with much pomp and ceremony, a red hat, and along with his new title, a gold ring set with a Sapphire, placed on the ring finger of his right hand by the Pope himself. According to Gregory XV, this is done to signify the Church is now the Cardinal’s spouse and he must never abandon her. [Fernie, 98, 102][Kunz, 104]
Sapphire was also revered as a gem of royalty, worn by kings, queens and nobility as a powerful defense from harm and envy. It was reputed to protect the wearer from dishonesty, fraud, terror, poverty, and even stupidity and ill temper. It was well-touted as an enemy of poison, even to the point of declaring that if a Sapphire were put into a glass with a spider or venomous reptile it would kill it. [Simmons, 339][Kunz, 104-105][Fernie, 102]
According to legend, Helen of Troy owned a large Sapphire which was believed to hold the key to her desirability. King Solomon’s magical ring inscribed on a Sapphire, known as the “Seal of Solomon,” was reported to give him the power to command demons and spirits, and to speak to animals. It was said he used the magic of Sapphires to seduce the Queen of Sheba. Charlemagne wore an enormous Sapphire amulet prominently to display his devotion to God. In Medieval times, Sapphire was used as a test for infidelity, thought to change color if worn by the unfaithful. [www.thenaturalsapphirecompany.com]
Medicinally, Sapphire was described as “cold, dry, and astringent,” taking the fire out of inflammations and drying up infections, especially of the eyes. Made into pastes or elixirs, it was used to anoint the eyelids for infections, and made into little balls the size of peas and polished, it was put into the eyes to take out dust, gnats, or anything that had fallen in. It was also thought to preserve the eyes from small pox and other diseases. [Fernie, 96-97]
Ointments of Sapphire and milk were spread over sores and boils, and elixirs mixed with cordial water, vinegar or the juice of lemons, were considered good for all fluxes of the belly, dysentery, hemorrhoids, and other bleedings. It was also used for internal ulcers, to strengthen and refresh the heart, and to cure melancholy. A Sapphire stone laid to the forehead was thought to stop bleeding at the nose. [Fernie, 96-97]
Because of its power to influence spirits, Sapphire was honored more than any other stone by necromancers in conferring with the dead to foretell the future. They felt it enabled them to hear and understand even the most obscure oracles. Witches were also reported to love this stone for working certain wonders by its virtue. [Kunz, 104-105]
The image of an astrolabe, if carved upon a Sapphire, has the power to increase wealth and enables the wearer to predict the future. The figure of a ram or of a bearded man, upon a Sapphire, has the power to cure and preserve from many infirmities as well as to free from poison and from all demons. This is a royal image; it confers dignities and honors and exalts the wearer. [Kunz, 133]
Sapphire symbolizes integrity, love, commitment and fidelity, and over the years has become popular in betrothal rings. It is traditionally given as gifts for a fifth and forty-fifth year wedding anniversary, and is considered a gem of autumn. [Eason, 45, 247][Kunz, 326]
The Star Sapphire, also called Asteria, has often been referred to as a Stone of Great Destiny. Some cultures believed the three light bars which cross to form the six-rayed star on the surface of the gem represented Faith, Hope, and Destiny (or mission). The Cingalese believed the moving star served as a protection against witchcraft of all kinds, and in German lore it was called Siegstein, the stone of victory. The mere sight of the stone was reputed to bring good luck, and as a guiding gem, it warded off ill omen and the Evil Eye. It was said to be so potent it continued to exercise its good influence over the first wearer even after it had passed into other hands. [Mella, 104][Kunz, 106-107][Simmons, 339]
Historically, Blue Star Sapphire was given on a twenty-sixth wedding anniversary, Gray Star Sapphire was given on a sixty-fifth, and Purple Star Sapphire was given on a sixty-seventh wedding anniversary. Star Sapphire was also known in Oriental culture as a “phenomenal gem” to be worn on Tuesdays. Phenomenal gems exhibited a moving line, star, or changes on the surface as the light varied, and was considered to bring good fortune to the wearer. [Kunz, 333-335, 337]
The symbols [ ] enclose the author's name and a page number for a reference cited from the following books:
[Ahsian, pp.] Robert Simmons & Naisha Ahsian, The Book of Stones (Berkley, CA: North Atlantic Books, 2007).
[Eason, pp. ]Cassandra Eason, The New Crystal Bible (London: Carlton Books Ltd., 2010).
[Fernie, pp.] William T. Fernie, The Occult and Curative Powers of Precious Stones (Blauvelt, NY: Rudolph Steiner Publications, 1973).
[Gienger, pp.] Michael Gienger, Healing Crystals (Scotland: Earthdancer Books, 2009).
[Hall, pp.] Judy Hall, The Crystal Bible (Cincinnati, OH: Walking Stick Press, 2003).
[Hall 2, pp.]Judy Hall, The Crystal Bible 2 (Cincinnati, OH: Walking Stick Press, 2009).
[Kunz, pp.] George Frederick Kunz, The Curious Lore of Precious Stones (New York: Dover Publications, 1971).
[Megemont, pp.] Florence Megemont, The Metaphysical Book of Gems and Crystals (Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press, 2008).
[Mella, pp.] Dorothee L. Mella, Stone Power II (Albuquerque, NM: Brotherhood of Life, Inc., 1986).
[Melody, pp.] Melody, Love Is In The Earth (Wheat Ridge, CO: Earth-Love Publishing House, 1995).
[Raphaell, pp.] Katrina Raphaell, Crystal Enlightenment (Santa Fe, NM: Aurora Press, 1985)
[Simmons, pp.] Robert Simmons & Naisha Ahsian, The Book of Stones (Berkley, CA: North Atlantic Books, 2007).