Your On-Line Guide to
The Healing Energies, Metaphysical Properties,
Legendary Uses and Meaning
Introduction to the Meaning and Uses of Bloodstone
In the ancient world, Bloodstone (Heliotrope) was considered to be the most beautiful of the Jaspers, a deep, earthy green gem emboldened with spots of bright red. Called the Sun Stone, and later Christ’s Stone, its energy carries the purity of blood and inherently speaks of life and birth, vitality and strength, passion and courage. As a talisman it is both mystical and magical, and its virtues are protective and nurturing.
The most widely known legend of this stone comes from the Middle Ages and claims the “Blood Stone” was formed at the crucifixion of Jesus Christ, when the blood of his wounds fell onto the dark green earth and turned to stone. Another version declares the blood of Christ, which flowed from the fatal spear-thrust, fell upon a Green Jasper lying at the foot of the Cross, and from this sprang the Bloodstone variety of Jasper. Today, as then, Bloodstone is regarded as a gem of noble sacrifice and can offer courage and solace to all who are called to give of themselves for the good of others. It elicits the highest, most altruistic character of those who wear or carry it. [Mella, 75][Fernie, 183][Kunz, 267][Simmons, 74]
The Blood Stone, however, was treasured long before the time of Christ, known in antiquity as Heliotrope, the Sun Stone. From the Greek helios, meaning “sun,” and trepein, “to attract,” Heliotrope signified “sun-turning,” and legends were attributed to this stone for the belief that when placed in the rays of the setting sun, or immersed in water, it turned the reflection of the sun to blood-red. Its use for healing, and its connection to blood and detoxification of the organs, dates back five thousand years to Mesopotamia. In many cultures, Heliotrope was dipped in cold water and placed on the body to aid circulation and transfer the power of the sun to prevent injury or disease, stop the flow of blood, or cure any wound. Its coagulant effect was renowned, and for this reason, ancient warriors often carried Heliotrope as an amulet of protection and courage, as well as its practical applications. Ground, powdered, and mixed with honey, it was used to cure tumors, draw out snake venom and staunch hemorrhages. It was said to clear putrefaction of abscesses in a day, and simply looking at the Blood Stone was believed to prevent eye diseases. [Mella, 76][Fernie, 180][Megemont, 91][Eason, 290][101 Hall, 54]
Bloodstone was treasured not only as a talisman of good health and long life, but was reputed to bring its owner respect, good fortune, riches and fame. It protected one from deception, helped overcome enemies in battle, and secured victory in court and legal matters. It was also believed to have magical properties with the ability to control the weather by averting lightning, conjuring storms or summoning rain. Bloodstone conferred the gift of prophecy as an “audible oracle” that gave off sound as a means of guidance or to warn of danger, and could direct spiritual energies to banish negativity and evil. [Fernie, 180-183][Kunz, 60-61][Hall, 84-85][Hall En, 105][Dunwich, 64][Lecouteux, 166]
Bloodstone (Heliotrope) may be classified as a Jasper or Chalcedony variety of Quartz, and is usually a combination of the two. It is typically defined as a dark green Chalcedony with blood-like spots of Red Jasper or iron oxide inclusions. It occurs as massive formations, ranging from dark green to greenish-blue or greenish-black, and may be translucent to opaque with a waxy, resinous luster. In addition to the spots and streaks of Red Jasper, some formations contain inclusions that are yellow or white, while others lacking inclusions may be entirely green. Bloodstone has been referred to as Blood Jasper and specimens with only yellow inclusions have been called Plasma. In the ancient world it was considered to be a semi-precious stone or gem, and was used extensively as signet seals and in jewelry, as well as being carved into decorative cups, small vases and statuettes. [Melody En, 152][www.mindat.org][www.gemdat.org][en.wikipedia.org][www.jjkent.com][Mella, 75]
Bloodstone Uses and Purposes
Wear or carry Bloodstone as an amulet of protection against threats or bullying, whether verbal or physical, and for guidance to withdraw when appropriate and the courage to confront when needed. Sew a small Bloodstone in the coat of a child or teenager who is being bullied. Carry one for strength when adjusting to new circumstances. [Eason, 290][Hall, 85][101 Hall, 54]
Wear or carry Bloodstone to increase mental clarity and to aid in decision-making. It provides a mental boost when motivation is lacking, and can revitalize the mind and body if you are exhausted. [Hall, 85][Melody, 161][Lembo, 93]
Bloodstone stimulates dreaming and heightens intuition. It is marvelous for increasing creativity and cultivating a project from the idea stage through to actualization. It encourages blessings and prosperity. [Hall, 85][Lembo, 92]
Bloodstone is a nurturing mother goddess stone, helpful in easing misunderstandings or difficulties with mothers or mothering issues. It also assists human and animal mothers in the bonding process after a traumatic birth or one where mother and baby were separated for a time. [Eason, 290]
Working with Bloodstone invigorates the system, boosting energy levels and increasing endurance in physical activity. It is beneficial for everyone from athletes to invalids for its steady vibration of purification and well-being. Use as a good luck charm for sports competitions or matches. [Simmons, 74][Eason, 290]
An excellent stimulator of the immune system, use Bloodstone to ward off colds, flu, infections and inflammation. It is also a remarkable aid for revitalizing and re-energizing the body after illness, injury, or physical exhaustion. [Gienger, 47][Hall, 85][Megemont, 92]
Bloodstone’s magical properties allow one to draw upon the power of the weather for personal healing, such as tapping into the winds to bring change or the rain to wash away sorrow. [Eason, 290]
Bloodstone Healing Therapies - Overview
(Please note: Information on this web site is no substitute for consulting a health care professional. All information contained on this web site, including information relating to medical and health conditions, products and treatments, is for informational purposes only. Please see your doctor or health care professional before starting any alternative treatments, diets, supplements or exercise programs.)
Bloodstone Physical Healing Energy
Bloodstone may be used to boost the immune system and to purify the blood, spleen, liver, kidneys, bladder, and intestines, neutralizing and eliminating toxins from the body. It benefits blood-rich organs, regulates and stimulates blood flow, and aids circulation. It is conducive to healthy bone marrow and may be used in the treatments of blood disorders such as anemia, leukemia, tumors, acute infections, and over acidification. [Melody, 161][Hall, 85][Eason, 290][Ahsian, 74][Lembo, 93]
Associated with birth and birthing processes, Bloodstone is a great ally stone for women during the childbearing years. It stimulates nutrient-rich blood and hormonal balance, and is thought to help prevent miscarriages. It assists in easing the birthing process, providing strength during labor and supportive vibrations so the baby travels easily through the birth canal. It is also believed to alleviate symptoms of PMS and menstrual disorders, and to stabilize hormones through menopause. [Lembo, 92-93][Hall En, 105][Eason, 290][Ahsian, 74]
Bloodstone dipped in cold water and applied to an afflicted area is highly beneficial in staunching blood flow, particularly nosebleeds. Keep the stone wet and re-dip as necessary. Bloodstone water, made by the indirect method or by letting the stone soak in demineralized water overnight, relieves varicose veins and hemorrhoids. Bloodstone is also thought to reduce lower back pain and relieve mosquito bites. [Fernie, 180, 182][Megemont, 92][Eason, 290]
Bloodstone Emotional Healing Energy
Bloodstone carries a tremendous power to ground one fully in the body, in the here and now, and to enhance one’s capacity to function with strength, determination and courage. It provides emotional support during times of extreme adversity, and helps those who have been bullied or abandoned by others to regain their connection to the Divine, letting them know that loneliness and isolation are mere illusion. Bloodstone teaches that chaos often precedes transformation and guides one in knowing when it is appropriate to strategically withdraw from situations, and when flexibility and taking right action will help one remain true to one’s own path. Bloodstone calms the emotional body, dispels confusion and enhances decision-making, nourishing feelings of worth, self-confidence and self-sufficiency. [Simmons, 74][Ahsian, 74][Mella, 76][Hall, 85][Hall En, 105][Melody, 160][Megemont, 92]
For those who are seriously ill, Bloodstone is an excellent talisman for facing the realities of physical mortality and death. Its powers of strength and courage allow one to look unflinchingly at the truth, even if the illness cannot be cured, and to move forward in the most appropriate ways. [Simmons, 74]
Bloodstone is an intense healing stone used to cleanse and realign the lower chakras with the heart, and is conducive to balancing the total body in order to overcome any distress or anxiety associated with re-alignment of these energies. This stone is particularly stimulating to the Base and Heart Chakras.
The Base, or Root Chakra, is located at the base of the spine, and controls the energy for kinesthetic feeling and movement. It is the foundation of physical and spiritual energy for the body. When physically out of balance the symptoms manifest themselves as lethargy, low levels of activity, low enthusiasm, and a need for constant stimulation. When spiritual energies are out of balance, one may feel flighty, disconnected from reality or distant. Red crystal energy is used to clear blockages and re-balance the Base Chakra. In balance, the physical body regains its strength and stamina, and the spiritual energy is rekindled in the form of security and sense of one’s own power. It often leads to independence and spontaneous leadership.
The Heart Chakra, located near the center of the breastbone, regulates our interaction with the external world and controls what we embrace and what we resist. It gives us the balancing ability to be ourselves within the environment. When the Heart Chakra is out of balance we may feel either controlling or controlled in a relationship, and become critical of the little foibles of others. We may find ourselves having inappropriately strong emotional responses to everyday external stimuli. Green crystal energy is used to resolve blockages and to re-balance the Heart Chakra, helping us understand our own needs and emotions clearly. We can deal with the ebbs and flows of emotional relationships, understand their cyclic nature, and accept the changes.
Bloodstone Spiritual Energy
Bloodstone is a stone of courage and wisdom, noble sacrifice and altruistic character. It stimulates the urge toward Christ consciousness within the self and helps bring one’s true spirituality into everyday life in a grounded and real way. It is also a stone of mysticism, providing insights and the spiritual intuition of truths which transcend ordinary understanding. [101 Hall, 54][Simmons, 74][Lembo, 92][Melody, 160]
Bloodstone grounds and protects the soul on many levels, heightening intuition, dispelling mental confusion, and keeping out negativity and undesirable entities. Because its colors can change in different lights, it is regarded as a shape-shifting stone, teaching one to travel invisibly between the worlds and negotiate different realms. One of its most important uses has been to gain admittance to the spiritual realms of the ancestors for healing the ancestral line. By dispelling negative patterns it allows one to live in the present untrammeled by the past. [101 Hall, 54][Hall, 84-85][Melody, 161]
Bloodstone carries mainly Green color energy. It is a “growth crystal” - a powerful conduit of the earth’s Life Force of birth, development and creation, and of the power of nature’s constant renewal. It is a potent aid in nurturing, whether of fledgling family relationships or a new business venture. Bloodstone is perfect for keeping a venture on course, a project on schedule, and life on track. It is a talisman of physical growth and strength, and safety in travel.
Large focal areas of Red energy in Bloodstone bring a self-confidence built on fearlessness, a call to action and excitement. It raises enthusiasm and speeds up metabolism. Red reflects the color of passion, energy, and life. It motivates. It is a very strong color - the color of fire and blood. Dark Red crystals embody strong, deep feelings, durable energy and quiet passion. It is a masculine color, particularly useful for increasing devotion and seeing the seriousness of life.
Bloodstone is a marvelous aid for contemplation, prayer, and meditation, bringing a calm, harmonious energy, beneficial for grounding and centering. It allows for a more direct union with the Divine, and opens one to the message within the stone to “be here now.” It imparts the knowledge that turmoil precedes perfection, and lends practical guidance on how to achieve the attributes of harmony, adaptability and strength. [Melody, 160]
Known as “the rain bringer,” Jasper has been revered since ancient and medieval times as a divining stone of “tempestaries,” magical masters of the wind and rain, called upon in secret to save harvests in periods of drought, or to save ships from violent storms. Bloodstone, Green and Brown Jaspers were considered the most powerful for this purpose. Jasper was also used by the American Indians for dowsing the land for water, and Red Jasper was especially helpful in increasing the searcher’s sensitivity to the Earth. [Kunz, 90][Megemont, 102][Mella, 88][Eason, 108]
Bloodstone was also utilized for divining the future as an “audible oracle,” giving off sounds of the wind, rain or thunder for guidance, to answer questions, or to warn of danger. [Kunz, 60-61][Hall, 84-85][Hall En, 105][Dunwich, 64]
The Divinatory meaning of Bloodstone/Heliotrope: You can get what you want with politeness if you stand your ground and repeat your words until you are heard. [Eason, 290]
In antiquity, dreaming of Heliotrope signified long life. Dreaming of Bloodstone signified distressing news. [Kunz, 358]
Bloodstone carries the main color energy of dark green. In some stones the spots are substantial enough to project its red energy. If your birthday falls in any of the following periods, a Bloodstone of the color listed can be a valuable conduit to your Guardian Angel. The table also provides the name of the Guardian Angel of those born in the time period.
|Date||Crystal Color||Name of Guardian Angel|
|March 31- April 4||Dk. Green||Sitael (Sirael)|
|September 8-12||Dk. Green||Lehahiah|
|December 27-31||Dk. Green||Poiel (Polial)|
There are other Angels that are partial to Bloodstone. The table below gives you the information about them.
|Purpose||Crystal Color||Name of Angel|
|Raphael is known as the Glory Angel; Tree of Life, the Angel of Wednesday, the Ruler of Mercury. He is also the Master of Tarot Card 0 “The Fool” and the 1st Tarot Card “The Magician”. Raphael also Heals Illness and is the Ruler of The west wind. He is the Angel of Compassion, Knowledge, Progress, Repentance, and Love.||Dk. Green||Raphael|
|Master of the 11th Tarot Card “Justice”.||Dk. Green||Chadaqiel|
|Protector and Ruler of the dates Sept.8-12; Virgo.||Dk. Green||Lehahiah|
|Protector and Ruler of the dates December 27-31; Capricorn.||Dk. Green||Poiel|
|Protector and Ruler of the dates March 31- April 4; Aries.||Dk. Green||Sitael|
|The Angel of the Birds.||Green||Arael|
|Angel of Mercury.||Green||Cochabiel|
|Protector and Ruler of the dates June 6-10; Gemini.||Green||Hakamiah|
|Metatron is the Crown Angel, the Tree of Life, and helps to Heal Learning Disorders. He is also the Master of the 20th Tarot Card “Judgment”.||Green||Metatron|
|Protector and Ruler of the dates January 1-5; Capricorn.||Green||Nemamiah|
|Master of the 18th Tarot Card “The Moon”.||Green||Vakhabiel|
|Protector and Ruler of the dates September 3-7; Virgo.||Green||Yehudiah|
|Master of the 16th Tarot Card “The Tower”.||Red||Graphiel|
|Protector and Ruler of the dates October 19-23; Libra.||Red||Mikael|
Bloodstone honors Brigit, the Irish Goddess of Fertility; and Dione, the Phoenician Earth Goddess.
As a Jasper, Bloodstone honors Bona Dea, the Roman Earth Goddess of Fertility and the Greek Goddess of Women. She protects women through all of their changes, and is a skilled healer, particularly with herbs.
Jaspers honor Gaia, the Greek Earth Mother Goddess. Born directly out of Chaos, the primal emptiness, she was the first (or one of the first) beings to appear during the process of creation, and is honored as being the Earth itself.
Jaspers also honor Callisto, the Greek Moon Goddess; Chirakan-Ixmucane, the Mayan Creator Goddess; and Clota, the Goddess of the River Cldye.
All crystals of green honor Persephone, the Greek Goddess of Spring. She represents celebration and the Earth alive with new growth.
There are several ways to find an appropriate birthstone. The traditional one is listed first. These are from the popular lists that most people are familiar with. The second way is to find your natural birthstone by the color wheel of life. You can click on the Natural Birthstone graphic below to learn more. Finally many people use the traditional stones of the Zodiac.
In this section you will find information on all three approaches.
While Jasper was the historical birthstone of March, Bloodstone, along with Aquamarine, is the traditional birthstone of March.
Bloodstone which is green in color is the natural birthstone of those fortunate enough to be born in the heart of spring (April 20 - May 20). Green crystals bring you renewal, success in new ventures, and good health.
Bloodstone is the zodiac stone for those born under the sign of Aries, the beginning of the new zodiacal year, from March 21 to April 19. It is a sign of discovery and new beginnings. Those born under this sign are pioneers open to new ideas and welcome challenges. They are often brave leaders with a genuine concern for those they lead.
Bloodstone is also thought to reduce the aggressiveness of those born under the sign of Scorpio. [Megemont, 92]
Throughout the ancient and medieval world, Bloodstone was worn as an amulet of protection and prestige, for power to control the weather and banish evil, and most importantly for its virtue of healing wounds. Its ability to staunch the flow of blood was exceptional, and ancient warriors often carried amulets of Bloodstone for just this purpose. Others, troubled with hemorrhoids, continuously wore rings made of Bloodstone on their fingers as a remedy. [Fernie, 180][101 Hall, 54]
Bloodstone is a Seeker Transformer crystal. Seekers contain a crystal energy structure that aligns the natural energy of the crystal to the natural power of the human mind in finding the way to new horizons and new capabilities. They’re pointers, directors, and compasses; the fresh start crystals. These are talismans of the scientist, the adventurer, the hunter, wanderer, and explorer. They’re also crystals of the student and the researcher.
Transformer crystals enhance efforts to change our situations, prospects, health, outlook or relationships. By transforming ourselves we transform our lives. We learn to dance, speak a new language, grow stronger, or become a better spouse or child. Seeker crystals with the earth power of the Transformer are excellent talismans to aid our efforts to grow, develop new capabilities and change our lives.
Bloodstone utilizes Wood energy, the energy of growth, expansion, new beginnings, nourishment and health. It enhances vitality, brings abundance, and keeps us growing physically. Use green crystals to enhance any space used for eating, in the room of a small child, or in a place of your home where you are beginning a new project. Wood energy is traditionally associated with the East and Southeast areas of a home or room. It is associated with the Family and Health area, and the Prosperity and Abundance area.
Bloodstone in Ancient Lore and Legend
Bloodstone was known in the ancient world as Heliotrope, from two Greek words signifying “sun-turning,” and was applied to this stone for the notion that when placed in the rays of the setting sun it reflected the color of blood, or when immersed in water changed the sun’s image to blood-red. It was also claimed that Bloodstone could make water boil and upturn the utensils in which it was contained. The historian, Pliny the Elder, declared the sun could be viewed in a Bloodstone as in a mirror, and that solar eclipses became visible within one. The legends of Heliotrope grew to include the stone’s ability to turn the sun itself blood-red, and to cause thunder, lightning, rain and tempest. The Roman magician, Damigeron, in the 2nd century, reiterated these properties, adding that it could also predict future events by producing rain and “audible oracles.” [Fernie, 180, 182][Kunz, 60-61][Lecouteux, 166][www.jjkent.com]
According to Damigeron, Heliotrope is the Sun stone. Freemen were believed to have worn it engraved with a radiant sun, freed slaves wore it with the head of a sun, and slaves’ Heliotropes bore the image of an altar surmounted by a torch. [Lecouteux, 166-167]
The most widely known legend of the Middle Ages claims the Bloodstone was formed at the crucifixion of Jesus Christ when the blood of His wounds dropped on the dark green earth and turned to stone. Other versions say the sacred blood of Christ flowed from the fatal spear-thrust and fell upon a dark green Jasper lying at the foot of the cross, and the Bloodstone variety of Jasper sprang from this. It has also been called “Christ’s Stone,” and Christ was considered by some to the Sun god. In all, the red spots are believed to represent the blood of Christ and have been beautifully engraved in gems cut from this stone so that the thorn-crowned head of Christ is placed so the red spots resemble drops of blood trickling down the hair and face of the Savior. A very fine specimen exemplifying these carvings exists in the French Royal Collection; another lies in the Field Museum in Chicago, USA. [Mella, 75][Fernie, 180, 183][Kunz, 267][Megemont, 92][www.jjkent.com]
Ancient and medieval writers held Heliotrope (Bloodstone) in the highest esteem, declaring it preserved the mind and bodily health of the wearer, giving him long life, and bringing him consideration, respect and fame, and guarded him from deception. The Leyden papyrus in the 3rd century A.D. praised the Bloodstone amulet saying, “The world has no greater thing; if one have this with him he will be given whatever he asks for. It also assuages the wrath of kings and despots, and whatever the wearer says will be believed.” It also claims, “Whoever bears this stone…and pronounces the name engraved upon it, will find all doors open, while bonds and stone walls will be rent asunder.” [Fernie, 182][Kunz, 61][Lecouteux, 166]
According to the ancient experts of magic, the stone Heliotrope, when combined with the herb of the same name, and with the help of certain incantations, so dazzles the eyes of men that it causes the bearer to be invisible. It is said the famous ring of Gyges carried this stone. [Fernie, 182-183][Lecouteux, 166]
The image of a bat engraved on a Heliotrope or Bloodstone was considered highly effective in giving the wearer power over demons and assistance with incantations. [Kunz, 133][Lecouteux, 167][Dunwich, 64]
There are many testimonials recorded through the centuries praising Bloodstone’s ability to stop nosebleeds, the flow of blood from wounds, and hemorrhages of all sorts. Its coagulant effect is most likely from the iron oxide in the stone, and its connection with purifying the blood and the kidneys dates back five thousand years to Mesopotamia. In the ancient Near East, and in Europe in the Middle Ages, it was powdered and mixed with honey and egg white to draw out snake venom, reduce tumors, and staunch hemorrhages. According to the Alfonso lapidary, Bloodstone hung over an abscess cleared putrefaction in a day, and simply looking at a Bloodstone could prevent eye diseases. Powdered, it dried watery secretions because of its great heat and dryness. [101 Hall, 54][Fernie, 184-185][Kunz, 390-391][Mella, 76]
Monardes, in the 16th century, wrote of Spaniards and the Indians of New Spain who often cut Bloodstone into the shape of hearts for use as a remedy for wounds and bleeding of all sorts. The best effect was achieved by dipping the stone first in cold water and then placing it in the right hand of the patient. From time to time, the stone was re-dipped in cold water. Touching the stone in any area where blood ran also stopped the bleeding. The Franciscan friar Bernardino de Sahagun, missionary to the Mexican Indians after the Spanish Conquest, wrote that he cured many natives who were at the point of death from hemorrhage as a result of the plague by having them hold a piece of Bloodstone in the hand. [Fernie, 184-185][Kunz, 390-391]
Both Jasper and Bloodstone are associated with a focus on the red rays of light which endow their wearer with a fiery, ardent disposition. Thus the apostle Peter is supposed to have derived his significant name from the Jasper and the honor as the “rock” upon which Christ said he would build his Church. Similarly the Jasper’s month of dedication is stormy, tempestuous March. [Fernie, 199]
The symbols [ ] enclose the author's name and a page number for a reference cited from the following books:
[Ahsian, pp.] Robert Simmons & Naisha Ahsian, The Book of Stones (Berkley, CA: North Atlantic Books, 2007).
[Dunwich,pp. ] Gerina Dunwich, Dunwich’s Guide to Gemstone Sorcery (Career Press, 2003).
[Eason, pp. ]Cassandra Eason, The New Crystal Bible (London: Carlton Books Ltd., 2010).
[Fernie, pp.] William T. Fernie, The Occult and Curative Powers of Precious Stones (Blauvelt, NY: Rudolph Steiner Publications, 1973).
[Gienger, pp.] Michael Gienger, Healing Crystals (Scotland: Earthdancer Books, 2009).
[Hall, pp.] Judy Hall, The Crystal Bible (Cincinnati, OH: Walking Stick Press, 2003).
[Hall 2, pp.]Judy Hall, The Crystal Bible 2 (Cincinnati, OH: Walking Stick Press, 2009).
[Hall III, pp.] Judy Hall, 101 Power Crystals (Beverly, MA: Fair Winds Press, 2011).
[Kunz, pp.] George Frederick Kunz, The Curious Lore of Precious Stones (New York: Dover Publications, 1971).
[Lembo, pp.] Margaret Lembo The Essential Guide to Crystals, Minerals, & Stones (Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn Worldwide, 2013).
[Lecouteux, pp.] Claude Lecouteux, A Lapidary of Sacred Stones (Rochester, VT: Inner Traditions, U.S. edition, 2012).
[Margherita,pp.] Margherita, The Crystal Lotus Handbook (Ontario, Canada: The Crystal Lotus, 2010).
[Megemont, pp.] Florence Megemont, The Metaphysical Book of Gems and Crystals (Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press, 2008).
[Mella, pp.] Dorothee L. Mella, Stone Power II (Albuquerque, NM: Brotherhood of Life, Inc., 1986).
[Melody, pp.] Melody, Love Is In The Earth (Wheat Ridge, CO: Earth-Love Publishing House, 1995).
[Raphaell, pp.] Katrina Raphaell, Crystal Enlightenment (Santa Fe, NM: Aurora Press, 1985)
[Simmons, pp.] Robert Simmons & Naisha Ahsian, The Book of Stones (Berkley, CA: North Atlantic Books, 2007).
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